From Watergate to WikiLeaks: Journalism and Secrecy in the New Media Age


Bill Allison is the editorial director at the Sunlight Foundation. A veteran investigative journalist and editor for nonprofit media, Allison worked for The Center for Public Integrity for nine years, where he co-authored “The Cheating of America” with Charles Lewis; was senior editor of “The Buying of the President 2000”; and co-edited the New York Times bestseller “The Buying of the President 2004.” He edited projects on topics ranging from the role of international arms smugglers and private military companies in failing states around the world to the rise of Section 527 organizations in American politics. Prior to joining the CPI, Allison worked at The Philadelphia Inquirer for eight years, the last two as researcher for Pulitzer Prize-winning reporters Donald L. Barlett and James B. Steele.
John Bohannon ( is a contributing correspondent for Science magazine. He completed a Ph.D. in molecular biology from the University of Oxford in 2002, studied bioethics in Berlin as a Fulbright scholar (2004-2005) and was a visiting scholar in the Program in Ethics and Health at Harvard University from 2008-2009. He is co-author with Isabella Rosselini of “Green Porno” (winner of 4 Webby Awards) and “Animals Distract Me” (official selection, 2011 Sundance Film Festival).
Danielle Brian is the executive director of the Project On Government Oversight (POGO). Under her direction, POGO has conducted numerous investigations that have resulted in major public policy reforms. She frequently testifies before Congress and appears on and is regularly quoted in national media. In 2006, Brian was inducted into the Freedom of Information Act Hall of Fame; in 2008, Ethisphere magazine ranked her among the top 100 most influential people in business ethics; and in 2010 she was awarded the Smith College Medal. Brian received her bachelor’s degree from Smith College and master’s degree from Johns Hopkins’ School of Advanced International Studies.
Stefan Candea is a freelance journalist and co-founder of the Romanian Centre for Investigative Journalism in Bucharest, Romania. As an investigative journalist for the Evenimentul Zilei newspaper in Bucharest, he wrote about the connections between international organized crime networks and high-ranking politicians and public servants. One article showed the links between La Cosa Nostra and associates of the Romanian president and the foreign secret service director. Other investigations by Candea have included the international arms trade, illegal international adoption, an investigation of the separatist region of Trans-Dniester and the diamond business in Romania. He worked for Deutsche Welle, for print, radio, TV and online and he did freelance research and production work for several foreign media outlets, including the BBC, Channel 4, ITN, ZDF, and Canal Plus. Since March 2001, he has been a correspondent for Reporters sans Frontieres in Romania. Candea is a member of International Consortium for Investigative Journalism and has won several awards including the IRE Tom Renner Award and the Overseas Press Club of America Award for online journalism. He teaches investigative journalism at Bucharest University and is currently the 2011 Carroll Binder Nieman Fellow at Harvard University.
Kathleen Carroll, executive editor and senior vice president of The Associated Press, is the top news executive of the world’s largest independent news agency. She is responsible for news content gathered by some 2,300 staffers working in more than 100 countries and distributed across all formats to a worldwide audience. In the past three years, she has led the AP through a major global restructuring so that 10 regional editing hubs around the globe now speed delivery of news once largely channeled from New York headquarters. She has driven to give AP coverage a new sophistication while meeting the evolving demands and capabilities of today’s multimedia formats. In addition, she has been a leader in decision-making about vital security issues for journalists covering stories in war zones and other hostile environments and on challenges to journalistic access. She has led AP’s global focus on journalism that holds government officials accountable to the people they lead. Before becoming AP’s executive editor, in 2002, she was an editor and news executive with the Knight Ridder Washington Bureau and the AP in Washington, California, New Jersey and her native Texas. She also has worked the International Herald Tribune, the San Jose Mercury News and The Dallas Morning News. She is on the board of the Committee to Protect Journalists and has served on the Pulitzer Prize Board since 2003.
Kevin Doyle is the editor-in-chief of The Cambodia Daily in Phnom Penh, where he has lived for more than 13 years. The first English-language daily newspaper in Cambodia, The Cambodia Daily is a not-for-profit publication dedicated to strengthening a free press and training a new generation of Cambodian journalists. Doyle has been arrested in pursuit of his work in Cambodia: Most recently, he was convicted on charges of defamation in 2009 for publishing the comments of a member of the country’s opposition party that were critical of high-ranking military officials. Prior to his appointment as editor-in-chief, Doyle worked for Reuters in Phnom Penh and has written on Cambodia for Time magazine and several other international publications. A graduate of the M.A. in journalism course at Dublin City University in Ireland, he is currently a 2011 Nieman Fellow at Harvard University.
Stefanie Friedhoff is special projects manager at the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard and, with Melissa Lutdke, author of this conference. She also is a freelance journalist and science writer for U.S. and European media such as Time, Sueddeutsche Zeitung and Folio/Neue Zuercher Zeitung. Friedhoff started her career as a freelance correspondent based in Cambridge, Mass., in 1998. Previously, she worked for BZ, Berlin's largest daily newspaper, where she was news editor and editor of the Sunday magazine. At the Nieman Foundation, Friedhoff organizes interdisciplinary conferences on diverse subjects such as trauma, journalism and storytelling and religion and human rights and directs the specialized Nieman Fellowship in Global Health Reporting. She is a 2001 Nieman Fellow.
Megan Garber is an assistant editor at Harvard University’s Nieman Journalism Lab, a collaborative attempt to figure out how quality journalism can survive and thrive in the Internet age. She was formerly a staff writer at the Columbia Journalism Review, where she reported on education, politics, culture, and news innovation for the magazine and its website. Megan has discussed press performance on NPR, the BBC, al-Jazeera English, MSNBC and other outlets, and has served as an adjunct professor of media criticism at Columbia University’s Graduate School of Journalism. Originally from Carmel, California, she holds an honors B.A. in English from Princeton University and an M.S. in journalism from Columbia, where she graduated with the school’s Criticism Award. Her essay “Common Knowledge,” on the political implications of a fragmented media world, won a 2010 Mirror Award for excellence in media coverage.
Bob Giles has been curator of the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard since 2000. Immediately prior to joining the foundation, Giles was senior vice president of the Freedom Forum and executive director of its Media Studies Center in New York City. Previously, he had been editor and publisher of The Detroit News. From 1977 to 1986, Giles was executive editor and then editor of the Democrat & Chronicle and the Times-Union in Rochester, N.Y. His career began in 1958 at the Akron Beacon Journal. As managing editor there in 1970, he directed coverage of the campus shootings at Kent State, for which the newspaper won the Pulitzer Prize. Also under his editorship, The Detroit News won a Pulitzer in 1994 for the paper’s disclosures of a scandal in the Michigan House Fiscal Agency. Giles is an eight-time Pulitzer Prize juror and is the author of “Newsroom Management: A Guide to Theory and Practice.” He is a graduate of DePauw University and the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism and was a 1966 Nieman Fellow. He received an honorary doctorate in journalism from DePauw in 1996 and also won the Scripps-Howard Foundation’s Distinguished Journalism Citation in 1978 for “outstanding public service in the cause of the First Amendment.”
Clint Hendler covers politics and government transparency for the Columbia Journalism Review. A former staffer at The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, his writing has been published by Mother Jones, The Nation, The Independent, CNN, and The New York Times. He is an alumnus of the Columbia Graduate School of Journalism and Dartmouth College, where he was editor in chief of the Dartmouth Free Press. He lives in Brooklyn.
David Kaplan is director of the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, an award-winning network of 100 reporters in 50 countries, sponsored by the Center for Public Integrity. He served previously as chief investigative correspondent for U.S. News & World Report, where he covered transnational crime and terrorism. Over a 30-year career, Kaplan has reported from two dozen countries and his work has won or shared more than 20 awards. At ICIJ he has overseen groundbreaking investigations into the black market in bluefin tuna, global tobacco smuggling, and the asbestos industry's targeting of developing countries. His books include “YAKUZA,” widely considered the standard work on Japanese organized crime.
Bill Keller became executive editor of The New York Times in July 2003. Before that, he had been an Op-Ed columnist and senior writer for The New York Times Magazine as well as other areas of the newspaper since September 2001. Previously, he served as managing editor from 1997 until September 2001 after serving as the newspaper’s foreign editor from June 1995 until 1997. He was the chief of The Times bureau in Johannesburg from April 1992 until May 1995. Keller is the author of “The Tree Shaker: The Story of Nelson Mandela,” published in 2008. Before moving to South Africa, Keller had been a Times correspondent in Moscow from December 1986 until October 1991, serving as the newspaper’s bureau chief for the last three years of his time there. He won a Pulitzer Prize in March 1989 for his coverage of the Soviet Union. Keller joined The New York Times in April 1984 as a domestic correspondent based in the Washington bureau. Before joining The Times, Keller had been a reporter for The Dallas Times Herald, the Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report in Washington and The Portland Oregonian. Keller holds a B.A. degree from Pomona College and completed the Advanced Management Program at The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in July 2000. He is currently a member of the board of trustees of Pomona College.
Teru Kuwayama is a freelance photographer based in New York City. His photographs have been published in Life, Time, Newsweek, National Geographic, Outside magazine and Maximum Rock’n’Roll. Since 2001, his work has focused on conflict and the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Kashmir. He is the co-founder of the website, an online network of photographers, filmmakers, journalists, and members of the military and NGO communities. In 2007, he launched The Battlespace Project, a traveling group exhibition of photographs from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. His work was featured in Esquire Magazine’s “The Best and Brightest” of 2004 and he has received numerous awards, including a 2009-2010 Knight Fellowship at Stanford, a Dorothea Lange-Paul Taylor Award in 2009, an Alicia Patterson Fellowship in 2006, a New York Foundation for the Arts Award in 2002 and the Alexia Award for World Peace in 1999. He is currently a 2010 TED Global Fellow and a 2010 Ochberg Fellow at the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma. Kuwayama’s latest project,, won a recent Knight News Challenge grant. Basetrack is an experimental media project using social media to track the U.S. 1st Battalion, Eighth Marines during their deployment to Afghanistan.
Melissa Ludtke has been editor of Nieman Reports, a quarterly magazine about journalism published by the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard, since 1998. She began her journalism career as a freelancer with ABC Sports and then worked for Sports Illustrated in the early 1970s, reporting on major league baseball, professional basketball and working on a column about TV and radio coverage. IN 1977, she was the plaintiff in a landmark federal lawsuit (Ludtke v. Kuhn) in which women reporters gained equal access to interviews with major league athletes. In the 1980s, she became a correspondent for Time magazine covering the 1984 Olympics, social policy issues, with a focus on children and family issues, and politics. Ludtke has worked for various nonprofit organizations, including the Casey Journalism Center for Families and Children. She has received a number of awards for her work, most recently the Yankee Quill Award presented in November 2010. She is a 1992 Nieman Fellow and is author of “On Our Own: Unmarried Motherhood in America.”
Alejandra Matus is a Chilean investigative journalist and currently a Mason Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School. A Nieman Fellow in 2009, she is the author of "The Black Book of Chilean Justice," which was banned under the provisions of the Chilean National Security Law in 1999. To escape arrest, she sought political asylum in the United States. Her battle in favor of freedom of expression contributed to the reform of that law and she returned to her country in 2001. Matus has written about political and judicial affairs in Chile and Latin America for 22 years. She is the author of two additional books and her work has been recognized nationally and internationally.
Maggie Mulvihill is the associate director and senior investigative producer of the New England Center for Investigative Reporting. Mulvihill is an award-winning journalist with more than 20 years experience in both print and broadcast reporting in New England specializing in investigative journalism. A former media lawyer, Mulvihill has worked at WHDH-TV, WBZ-TV, the Boston Herald, The Associated Press and as a legal affairs writer for a variety of law-related publications. She has worked at The Reporter’s Committee for Freedom of the Press in Washington D.C. and was a 2004-2005 fellow at the Nieman Foundation for Journalism at Harvard University, focusing on government secrecy and its implications for news organizations. Mulvihill is active in freedom of information and open government issues and serves on the board of directors of the New England First Amendment Coalition. Mulvihill has taught journalism at the Harvard University Summer School program and is a clinical professor of journalism at Boston University.
Aron Pilhofer is editor of interactive news at The New York Times, overseeing a news-focused team of journalist/developers who build dynamic, data-driven applications to enhance The Times’ reporting online. He is also co-founder of DocumentCloud, a project designed to improve journalism by making source documents easier to find, search, analyze and share online, and Hacks and Hackers, an organization designed to bring journalists and technologists together. Prior to joining The Times, Pilhofer was database editor at the Center for Public Integrity in Washington. Before that, he worked as a reporter for various Gannett newspapers in New Jersey and Delaware with a stint in between on the national training staff of Investigative Reporters and Editors.
Walter Pincus is an intelligence and national security reporter for The Washington Post. He first joined the paper in 1966. Through the years, has covered numerous topics of national significance, including nuclear weapons and arms control, politics, Watergate, the Iran-Contra affair, investigations of Congress and the executive branch and the Bush administration’s handling of Iraq pre-war intelligence. His articles were among those in the newspaper’s September 11 package that won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for national reporting. Among his many other honors was the 1977 George Polk Award for articles exposing the neutron warhead. He also received the 1961 Page One Award from the Society of Professional Journalists for magazine reporting in The Reporter. In 1999, he was awarded the first Stewart Alsop Award given by the Association of Foreign Intelligence Officers for his coverage of national security affairs. Pincus has been a news consultant for NBC and CBS, and won a television Emmy in 1981 for writing on a documentary series, “Defense of the United States.” He has taken two leaves from the Post – to direct two investigations for the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in 1969, which resulted in new legislation, and to serve as executive editor of The New Republic in the 1970s. Pincus also has served as a consultant to The Washington Post Company, exploring new electronic uses for news.
Rob Rose heads up the business investigations unit at the Sunday Times, South Africa’s most widely read newspaper. Most recently, his work has included exposing South Africa’s largest-ever Ponzi scheme, which conned international investors by offering huge returns on HIV/AIDS drugs. This year, he wrote extensively on the Soccer World Cup, which was held in South Africa. He also contributed to the book “Player and Referee: Conflicting interests and the 2010 FIFA World Cup,” which described undisclosed contracts between South African government entities and football’s governing body, FIFA, and revealed shady deals struck by FIFA with its suppliers. Other recent stories involve Zimbabwe’s illegal diamond smuggling trade and kickbacks in South Africa’s $10 billion arms deal. A law school graduate, Rose was named South Africa’s financial journalist of the year in 2010, as well as the investigative journalist of the year. He is a 2011 Nieman Fellow.
Barry Sussman is the editor of the Nieman Watchdog Project, a website that designed to help journalists ask the right questions and monitor and hold accountable all those who exert power in public life. Sussman was a Washington Post editor for 22 years, holding the positions of city editor, special Watergate editor, special projects editor/national, pollster and public opinion analyst and columnist for The Washington Post national weekly edition. He is the author of three books. The first, “The Great Cover-Up: Nixon and the Scandal of Watergate,” was named one of the best books of the year in 1974 by The New York Times; it is about to be reissued as a fourth edition paperback and ebook. Ten years after its publication John Dean called it “the best book on Watergate.” His other books are “What Americans Really Think,” published in 1987, about public opinion and politics; and “Maverick, A Life in Politics,” written with the subject of the book, Lowell P. Weicker, Jr., which was published in 1995.